Monthly archives: March 2015

Wood Veneer

Are veneers used in guitar making?

The answer is yes. In the lower price range of guitar and even the entry level of the more top well-known brands, veneers are used on the tops, sides and backs. These are known as laminated tops and backs. This is done primarily to cut production costs due to the high volumes produced compared to increasing scarcity of good solids used in instrument making. This makes the instrument look as if it was made in solid and often these instruments, if made well, have a fairly good sound. Some manufacturers also use high pressure laminates (HPL) on their backs and sides. HPL is a laminate that is made under very high heat and pressure, and example of this is Formica, which is covered with a paper foil and then covered with a melamine.

On instruments that are handmade by individual luthiers, they are made using well-chosen tone woods that are solid, the top being the focus of creating an above average tone.

But, many people are not familiar with what a veneer is, so I thought I would give a brief outline of what veneering is.

What is a wood veneer?

Veneer is a thin slice of solid wood that is glued onto a substrate, like chipboard, mdf (medium density fibre), plywood etc. The thickness can vary up to approximately 2mm – 5mm. Veneering 3When people who are specialists in selecting veneer, choose logs for slicing that are the prime. The reason for this is that they will get the best optimisation out of the log and hence the quality will be good – minimal defects such as knots, crack, rot, defective grain etc. The word veneer, according to Merriam Webster’s dictionary dates to 1702. However, adding a thin sheet of a superior wood grain to a lesser quality wood is a much older craft. Today, adding a veneer of wood is commonplace on many high-quality solid-wood furnishings as well as less expensive items constructed from particle boards. A simple wood veneer can unify the appearance of a piece or serve the design of the furnishing as a work of art.

How far back does veneering go? The ancient Egyptians were the inventors of veneer wood according to the David R. Webb Company, a modern manufacturer of wood veneers. Though the Egyptians enjoyed the beauty of wood, trees were scarce in the Nile region. By carefully cutting exquisite wood into thin sheets, it could be crafted into delicate boxes, inlaid or applied to the top of less beautiful wood or materials. Ken Melchert of the Harp Gallery notes that fabulous veneer work in ebony” a dense, black wood, was put into King Tut’s tomb.

So, as you can see, veneering is not new, but what has changed, is the substrates and glues used today are more efficient and stable. Also, it is a lot more environmentally friendly, compared to a 1 inch (25mm) thick piece of solid, you get approximately 30 – 40 times the area using veneer, which the standard thickness that is cut today is 0,6mm.

Wood is becoming a scarce commodity. In the furniture and decorating industry, there is definitely a need for veneers. Many of the top manufacturers use it for the consistency and variation that is available – it is definitely not inferior, in fact, if done properly, in many instances it can be better.

Neck Grafts on Violins

Many instruments in their lifetime will at some stage need to have repairs done. This specific repair of this blog has no reference to guitar making. It pertains to the violin.Neck Graft 8

As instruments are played and used, over time they wear, and also due to accidental damage they may need repair. Repairs must be done carefully to maintain the integrity and the value of the instrument. More specifically, neck grafting of a violin, viola, cello and double bass is a repair done where the neck is replaced but the scroll and peg box is kept original.

Starting round the 19th century, to improve the sound of specifically the violin, necks were made longer, and many instruments made before this time were altered by having new necks made, but the original scrolls and peg boxes were used to keep the instrument as original as possible. This was done by what is known as a neck graft. So, if you see an instrument that has had a neck graft, you can tell that it was possibly pre 19th century, but beware of fake grafts.

This repair would be similar to the violin, viola, cello and double bass. The first step would be to remove the finger board and the remove the neck from the body. Then the scroll and peg box would be cut from the original neck. A new piece of wood for the neck would selected to match the grain of the original neck as close as possible and then shaped as close as possible to the original shape, trying to keep the instrument the way it was made. The centre line of the peg box and scroll is lined up perfectly with the new neck and a joint is cut to fit the two together. The new neck is fitted to the body and before gluing, the fingerboard is fitted to allow the neck to be finally shaped. TNeck Graft Violin_Repair_Finished_Varnish_Touch-Up 5he neck is then fitted and glued, setting the angles and bridge height. The luthier will now touch up the neck to try and match the colour to make the repair as invisible as possible. If this neck graft is done well, it is often quite difficult to find.

 

CITES – What is it?

In a previous blog I mentioned Engelmann Spruce being CITES listed. This is to explain more about CITES see:  http://www.cites.org/

Timber is also becoming a scarce commodity and we need to plan and use wisely what we have left. Even in this small trade of guitar making we can see the depletion of good quality of wood – with proper planning we can win.CITES -Timber 2

In our fast moving economic environment, and our ever growing world population, we are experiencing an increasing demand on our natural resources and if we, as a human race are not careful, because of our ever growing desire to have and consume, we will deplete and possibly destroy our planet. There are organisations that exist and are doing good work and are trying to make people aware and are trying to put restrictions on using resources that are endangered….. CITES  is one of these agreements………

What is CITES

CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.

Widespread information nowadays about the endangered status of many prominent species, such as the tiger and elephants, might make the need for such a convention seem obvious. But at the time when the ideas for CITES were first formed, in the 1960s, international discussion of the regulation of wildlife trade for conservation purposes was something relatively new. With hindsight, the need for CITES is clear. Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future.

Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.

How Cites Works

CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimens of selected species to certain controls. All import, export, re-export and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a licensing system. Cites Rhino 1Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities in charge of administering that licensing system and one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species.

We need to do much more as a human race to protect this planet against greed and abuse. In South Africa we have a rapid depletion of our Rhino due to brutal poaching, all for just their horn – Yet amazingly, you can still acquire a licence to hunt a Rhino……..? We need to do Much More……!

Engelmann Spruce in Guitar Making

Of the many Spruce trees, Engelmann Spruce is one of the woods used in Guitar making as well as other instrument making.Engelmann Spruce 1 Engelmann spruce originates in Western North America – extends northward at higher elevations in the Cascade, Monashee, Selkirk, and possibly the Rocky Mountains, as well as the highlands surrounding the Interior Plateau. Picea engelmannii is a medium-sized to large evergreen tree growing to 25–40 m (82–131 ft) tall, exceptionally to 65 m (213 ft) tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m (4 ft, 9 in).

Engelmann spruce is of economic importance for its wood, harvested for paper-making and general construction. Wood from slow-grown trees at high altitude has a specialised use in making musical instruments such as acoustic guitars, harps, violins, and pianos.

Engelmann Spruce is usually a cream to almost white color, with an occasional hint of red. Easy to work, as long as there are no knots present. Glues and finishes well, though it can give poor (blotchy and inconsistent) results when being stained due to its closed pore structure. A sanding sealer, gel stain, or toner is recommended when coloring Spruce.

With regard to sustainability, this wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, and is reported by the IUCN as being a species of least concern.

Engelmann is also known as white, European or German spruce, although they are technically different species. It is usually visually distinguishable from Sitka by its creamier complexion.DSCF9452 The high quality of Spruce amongst all species is running out and guitar makers worldwide, are having to compromise the quality to what is available.

Engelmann has a mature tone, and yields a slightly richer midrange than Sitka, which makes a guitar sound a bit older. Old growth Engelmann tends to have a sonic attribute of smoothness or refinement to it, but the days of older growth Engelmann trees are essentially gone for now.

Antonio Stradivari – The Sabionari Guitar

Amongst the many violins made by Antonio Stradivari, he also made violas, cellos, double bases, harps, guitars and probably other instruments as well.Sabionari Guitar 1 The Sabionari guitar (1679) is one of the five surviving guitars made by Antonio Stradivari. At the present time is the only playable one in the world . In guitar making it is definitely appreciated that to have a guitar this old and still playable is truly incredible. The interesting thing about old instruments is their history……….

A manuscript has survived which provides informations on the guitar being sold and bought in the 18th and 19th century.

Courtesy of Web Statistics, a translation of a letter below, written in 1854 by the owner of the time, Filippo Benetti, a bookseller from Ferrara to a new buyer, the landowner Vincenzo Tioli from Bologna, informs that the guitar had been previously sold by the Stradivari family descendants to Giovanni Sabionari (from whom the guitar takes its name), the year of the sale is not provided and therefore we cannot ascertain who was the Stradivari family member who sold the guitar.Sabionari Guitar 2

Translation of the manuscript posted Bologna March 2 (18)54

From : Filippo Benetti

Address : Most honourable Engineer Vincenzo Tioli Bologna

 

Dear Friend,

Your kindest paper is written on last February 19 : but I did not have it until

the present moment and I don’t know how it is.

The guitar is of Stradivari and the authentication is born by the neck doing the

legalization by his own hand.

This guitar was purchased in Cremona from the descendants of the family who sold

it to a certain Giovanni Sabionari and I purchased it from him : but maintain it as

the pure truth, that the instrument is true and real manufactured by the above

mentioned Antonio and that he made only that one.

This is what I owed you in due answer, meantime I submit to your orders, I am

already collecting other things and manuscripts that at your coming we will make

other bargains.

Meanwhile believe with distinguished esteem .

 

Ferrara First of May 1854

 

Very humble servant of you best Sir

 

Filippo Benetti